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PIC18F2525 Datasheet(PDF) 60 Page - Microchip Technology

Part # PIC18F2525
Description  28/40/44-Pin Enhanced Flash Microcontrollers with 10-Bit A/D and nanoWatt Technology
Download  412 Pages
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Manufacturer  MICROCHIP [Microchip Technology]
Direct Link  http://www.microchip.com
Logo MICROCHIP - Microchip Technology

PIC18F2525 Datasheet(HTML) 60 Page - Microchip Technology

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PIC18F2525/2620/4525/4620
DS39626E-page 58
© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc.
5.2.3
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM
MEMORY
The program memory is addressed in bytes. Instruc-
tions are stored as two bytes or four bytes in program
memory. The Least Significant Byte of an instruction
word is always stored in a program memory location
with an even address (LSb = 0). To maintain alignment
with instruction boundaries, the PC increments in steps
of 2 and the LSb will always read ‘0’ (see Section 5.1.1
“Program Counter”).
Figure 5-4 shows an example of how instruction words
are stored in the program memory.
The CALL and GOTO instructions have the absolute
program memory address embedded into the instruc-
tion. Since instructions are always stored on word
boundaries, the data contained in the instruction is a
word address. The word address is written to PC<20:1>,
which accesses the desired byte address in program
memory. Instruction #2 in Figure 5-4 shows how the
instruction GOTO
0006h
is encoded in the program
memory. Program branch instructions, which encode a
relative address offset, operate in the same manner. The
offset value stored in a branch instruction represents the
number of single-word instructions that the PC will be
offset by. Section 24.0 “Instruction Set Summary”
provides further details of the instruction set.
FIGURE 5-4:
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY
5.2.4
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
The standard PIC18 instruction set has four two-word
instructions: CALL, MOVFF, GOTO and LSFR. In all
cases, the second word of the instructions always has
‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits; the other 12 bits
are literal data, usually a data memory address.
The use of ‘1111’ in the 4 MSbs of an instruction spec-
ifies a special form of NOP. If the instruction is executed
in proper sequence – immediately after the first word –
the data in the second word is accessed and used by
the instruction sequence. If the first word is skipped for
some reason and the second word is executed by itself,
a NOP is executed instead. This is necessary for cases
when the two-word instruction is preceded by a condi-
tional instruction that changes the PC. Example 5-4
shows how this works.
EXAMPLE 5-4:
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
Word Address
LSB = 1
LSB = 0
Program Memory
Byte Locations
000000h
000002h
000004h
000006h
Instruction 1:
MOVLW
055h
0Fh
55h
000008h
Instruction 2:
GOTO
0006h
EFh
03h
00000Ah
F0h
00h
00000Ch
Instruction 3:
MOVFF
123h, 456h
C1h
23h
00000Eh
F4h
56h
000010h
000012h
000014h
Note:
See
Section 5.6
“PIC18
Instruction
Execution and the Extended Instruc-
tion Set” for information on two-word
instructions in the extended instruction set.
CASE 1:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; No, skip this word
1111 0100 0101 0110
; Execute this word as a NOP
0010 0100 0000 0000
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code
CASE 2:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; Yes, execute this word
1111 0100 0101 0110
; 2nd word of instruction
0010 0100 0000 0000
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code


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